Welcome, fellow number crunchers! You know what’s more fun than calculating the Return on Investment (ROI) of electronic resources? Literally anything else. But since we’re here, let’s make the most of it!

The basic formula for Electronic Resource ROI is:

```
ROI = (Gain from Investment - Cost of Investment) / Cost of Investment
```

Table of Contents

## ROI Categories and Interpretation

ROI (%) | Interpretation |
---|---|

< 0 | Negative ROI |

0 – 10 | Low ROI |

10 – 20 | Moderate ROI |

> 20 | High ROI |

## Example Calculations

Person | Cost of Investment | Gain from Investment | ROI (%) | Calculation |
---|---|---|---|---|

Bob | $50 | $100 | 100 | ROI = (100 – 50) / 50 |

Alice | $200 | $500 | 150 | ROI = (500 – 200) / 200 |

## ROI Calculation Methods

Method | Advantages | Disadvantages | Accuracy |
---|---|---|---|

Basic ROI Formula | Simple, widely used | Does not account for time value of money | Moderate |

Net Present Value method | Considers time value of money | More complex | High |

## Evolution of ROI Concepts

Time Period | Key Developments |
---|---|

1930s | ROI concept introduced in finance |

1980s | ROI applied to IT investments |

2000s | ROI applied to electronic resources |

## Limitations of ROI Accuracy

**Time Value of Money**: The basic ROI formula does not consider the time value of money.**Intangible Benefits**: Not all benefits from electronic resources can be quantified.

## Alternative ROI Methods

Method | Pros | Cons |
---|---|---|

Payback Period | Simple, easy to understand | Does not account for benefits after payback period |

Break-Even Analysis | Takes fixed and variable costs into account | Does not consider time value of money |

## FAQs

**What is Electronic Resource ROI?**Electronic Resource ROI is the return on investment for electronic resources.**Why is ROI important?**ROI helps justify the investment in electronic resources by showing the potential return.**How is ROI calculated?**ROI is calculated using the formula: (Gain from Investment – Cost of Investment) / Cost of Investment.**What are some limitations of ROI calculations?**Some limitations include not considering the time value of money and not being able to quantify all benefits from electronic resources.**Are there alternative methods to calculate ROI?**Yes, some alternative methods include the Payback Period method and the Break-Even Analysis method.**What does a negative ROI mean?**A negative ROI means the investment resulted in a loss rather than a gain.**What is considered a good ROI?**An ROI above 20% is generally considered high.**How has the concept of ROI evolved over time?**The concept of ROI was introduced in finance in the 1930s, applied to IT investments in the 1980s, and to electronic resources in the 2000s.**What are some resources for further study on ROI?**Resources for further study include the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of California, Berkeley.**Can ROI calculations be standardized?**Yes, the National Institute of Standards and Technology provides resources on the standardization of ROI calculations.

## References

- National Institute of Standards and Technology Provides resources on the standardization of ROI calculations.
- University of California, Berkeley Offers courses and articles on ROI calculations in the context of electronic resources.