Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) Calculator


Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) Calculator
1. Delusions (Beliefs which are unfounded, unrealistic, and idiosyncratic)?
2. CONCEPTUAL DISORGANISATION – Disorganised process of thinking characterised by disruption of goal-directed sequencing, e.g. circumstantiality, loose associations, tangentiality, gross illogicality or thought block.)?
3. HALLUCINATORY BEHAVIOUR – Verbal report or behaviour indicating perceptions which are not generated by external stimuli. These may occur in the auditory, visual, olfactory or somatic realms?
4. EXCITEMENT – Hyperactivity as reflected in accelerated motor behaviour, heightened responsivity to stimuli, hypervigilance or excessive mood lability?
5. GRANDIOSITY – Exaggerated self-opinion and unrealistic convictions of superiority, including delusions of extraordinary abilities, wealth, knowledge, fame, power and moral righteousness?
6. SUSPICIOUSNESS/PERSECUTION – Unrealistic or exaggerated ideas of persecution, as reflected in guardedness, ad distrustful attitude, suspicious hypervigilance or frank delusions that others mean harm?
7. HOSTILITY – Verbal and nonverbal expressions of anger and resentment, including sarcasm, passive-aggressive behaviour, verbal abuse and assualtiveness?
8. BLUNTED AFFECT – Diminished emotional responsiveness as characterised by a reduction in facial expression, modulation of feelings and communicative gestures?
9. EMOTIONAL WITHDRAWAL – Lack of interest in, involvement with, and affective commitment to life’s events?
10. POOR RAPPORT – Lack of interpersonal empathy, openness in conversation and sense of closeness, interest or involvement with the interviewer. This is evidenced by interpersonal distancing and reduced verbal and nonverbal communication?
11. PASSIVE/APATHETIC SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL – Diminished interest and initiative in social interactions due to passivity, apathy, anergy or avolition. This leads to reduced interpersonal involvements and neglect of activities of daily living?
12. DIFFICULTY IN ABSTRACT THINKING – Impairment in the use of the abstract-symbolic mode of thinking, as evidenced by difficulty in classification, forming generalisations and proceeding beyond concrete or egocentric thinking in problem-solving tasks?
13. LACK OF SPONTANEITY AND FLOW OF CONVERSATION – Reduction in the normal flow of communication associated with apathy, avolition, defensiveness or cognitive deficit. This is manifested by diminished fluidity and productivity of the verbal interactional process?
14. STEREOTYPED THINKING – Decreased fluidity, spontaneity and flexibility of thinking, as evidenced in rigid, repetitious or barren thought content?
15. SOMATIC CONCERN – Physical complaints or beliefs about bodily illness or malfunctions. This may range from a vague sense of ill being to clear-cut delusions of catastrophic physical disease?
16. ANXIETY – Subjective experience of nervousness, worry, apprehension or restlessness, ranging from excessive concern about the present or future to feelings of panic?
17. GUILT FEELINGS – Sense of remorse or self-blame for real or imagined misdeeds in the past?
18. TENSION – Overt physical manifestations of fear, anxiety, and agitation, such as stiffness, tremor, profuse sweating and restlessness?
19. MANNERISMS AND POSTURING – Unnatural movements or posture as characterised be an awkward, stilted, disorganised, or bizarre appearance?
20. DEPRESSION – Feelings of sadness, discouragement, helplessness and pessimism?
21. MOTOR RETARDATION – Reduction in motor activity as reflected in slowing or lessening or movements and speech, diminished responsiveness of stimuli, and reduced body tone?
21. MOTOR RETARDATION – Reduction in motor activity as reflected in slowing or lessening or movements and speech, diminished responsiveness of stimuli, and22. UNCOOPERATIVENESS – Active refusal to comply with the will of significant others, including the interviewer, hospital staff or family, which may be associated with distrust, defensiveness, stubbornness, negativism, rejection of authority, hostility or belligerence? reduced body tone?
23. UNUSUAL THOUGHT CONTENT – Thinking characterised by strange, fantastic or bizarre ideas, ranging from those which are remote or atypical to those which are distorted, illogical and patently absurd?
24. DISORIENTATION – Lack of awareness of one’s relationship to the milieu, including persons, place and time, which may be due to confusion or withdrawal?
25. POOR ATTENTION – Failure in focused alertness manifested by poor concentration, distractibility from internal and external stimuli, and difficulty in harnessing, sustaining or shifting focus to new stimuli?
26. LACK OF JUDGEMENT AND INSIGHT – Impaired awareness or understanding of one’s own psychiatric condition and life situation. This is evidenced by failure to recognise past or present psychiatric illness or symptoms, denial of need for psychiatric hospitalisation or treatment, decisions characterised by poor anticipation or consequences, and unrealistic short-term and long-range planning?
27. DISTURBANCE OF VOLITION – Disturbance in the wilful initiation, sustenance and control of one’s thoughts, behaviour, movements and speech?
28. POOR IMPULSE CONTROL – Disordered regulation and control of action on inner urges, resulting in sudden, unmodulated, arbitrary or misdirected discharge of tension and emotions without concern about consequences?
29. PREOCCUPATION – Absorption with internally generated thoughts and feelings and with autistic experiences to the detriment of reality orientation and adaptive behaviour?
30. ACTIVE SOCIAL AVOIDANCE – Diminished social involvement associated with unwarranted fear, hostility, or distrust?

Hello there, folks! Have you ever tried to understand the nitty-gritty of the PANSS calculation formula? No, it’s not about doing a salsa dance with your pants on, but rather, it’s a critical measure used in the world of psychiatry. But let’s dive in, shall we?

PANSS Calculation Formula

The PANSS calculation formula is derived by adding up the scores from each of three scales: positive scale, negative scale, and general psychopathology scale. Each item on these scales is rated from 1 (absent) to 7 (extreme).

Total PANSS Score = Positive Scale Score + Negative Scale Score + General Psychopathology Scale Score

PANSS Categories

Category Score Range Interpretation
Absent 1 No psychopathological signs
Minimal 2 Psychopathology barely noticeable
Mild 3 Psychopathology present but not pronounced
Moderate 4 Psychopathology clearly evident
Severe 5 Psychopathology strongly pronounced
Extreme 6 Psychopathology overpowering

PANSS Calculation Examples

Name Positive Scale Score Negative Scale Score General Psychopathology Scale Score Total PANSS Score Interpretation
John 12 10 20 42 Mild
Lisa 20 15 30 65 Moderate
Bob 30 20 40 90 Severe

PANSS Calculation Methods

Method Advantages Disadvantages Accuracy Level
Direct Observation High accuracy Time-consuming High
Interviews Comprehensive May be biased Moderate
Self-report Fast Less reliable Low

Evolution of PANSS Calculation

Year Changes in PANSS Calculation
1987 Initial introduction of PANSS
1990 Addition of General Psychopathology Scale
2000 Introduction of PANSS-6
2010 Development of simplified PANSS versions

Limitations of PANSS Calculation Accuracy

  1. Subjectivity: The scores might be influenced by the subjective judgment of the rater.
  2. Bias: The self-reported scores may contain biases.
  3. Lack of specificity: The items in the scale are broad and encompass multiple symptoms.

Alternative Methods for Measuring PANSS

Method Pros Cons
BPRS Shorter and easier to administer Less comprehensive
CGI Simple and fast Less detailed

FAQs on PANSS Calculator and PANSS calculations

  1. What is the PANSS Calculator? The PANSS Calculator is a tool used to calculate the severity of symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.
  2. How accurate is the PANSS calculation? The accuracy of PANSS calculation depends on various factors such as the method of assessment and the individual’s responses.
  3. Can the PANSS calculation be used for other disorders? The PANSS calculation is specifically designed for schizophrenia and is not typically used for other disorders.
  4. How often should the PANSS calculation be performed? The frequency of PANSS calculation depends on the individual’s condition and the clinician’s judgment.
  5. Can I perform the PANSS calculation on my own? It is recommended that the PANSS calculation be performed by trained professionals.
  6. What are the scales included in the PANSS calculation? The PANSS calculation includes the positive scale, the negative scale, and the general psychopathology scale.
  7. How is the total PANSS score calculated? The total PANSS score is the sum of the scores from the three scales.
  8. What does a higher PANSS score indicate? A higher PANSS score indicates more severe symptoms of schizophrenia.
  9. What does a lower PANSS score indicate? A lower PANSS score indicates less severe symptoms of schizophrenia.
  10. Is there an online PANSS calculator available? Yes, there are several online resources available for calculating the PANSS score.


  1. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) You can find comprehensive information about schizophrenia and other mental health conditions.
  2. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CDC provides statistics and public health information related to schizophrenia.
  3. National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) NAMI offers a wide range of resources for individuals with schizophrenia and their families.